HISTORY of NOBEL PRIZE
Winning a Nobel Prize is a life-changing honor. Whether the laureate is an internationally known figure (such as Nelson Mandela, winner of the 1993 Peace Prize) or a scientist plucked from obscurity (like Richard R. Ernst, who won the 1991 prize in chemistry for refinements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), the award brings with it worldwide recognition that highlights one's life work and provides the funds to continue and further the mission. For academics and institutions, a Nobel Prize is used to attract the best and the brightest minds, whether students or scholars.

ALFRED B. NOBEL

 

Alfred B. Nobel (1833–1896), the Swedish chemist and engineer who invented dynamite, left $9 million in his will to establish the Nobel Prizes, which are awarded annually, without regard to nationality, in six areas (peace, literature, physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and economic science) "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind."
At first glance, it seems odd that the inventor of a powerful explosive would endow a group of awards that includes a peace prize. But Nobel was an industrialist with a conscience. He is credited with creating a controllable combustible that made blasting rock and the construction of canals and tunnels a relatively safe process. Nobel also contributed to the inventions of synthetic rubber, artificial silk, and synthetic leather. He held more than 350 patents. His interests were not limited to science. In fact, he was a lover of English literature and poetry and wrote several novels and poems. At his death, he left a library of more than 1,500 books, from fiction to philosophy.
Family members were shocked when they learned that Nobel had dictated that his fortune be used to establish the Nobel Prizes. They contested his will, but his final wishes were executed and the first awards were distributed in 1901, on the fifth anniversary of his death. The prize in economics, however, was established in 1968 by Riksbank, the Swedish bank, in honor of its 300th anniversary. Stockholm's Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences administers the award in physics and chemistry, the Royal Caroline Medical Institute awards the prize in physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy oversees the prize in literature. The Norwegian Storting, or parliament, awards the peace prize.

 

The Prize

The Nobel Prize is the first international award given yearly since 1901 for achievements in physics, physics, physics, physics and physics. The prize consists of a medal, a personal diploma, and a prize amount.

In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank (Bank of Sweden) instituted the Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize.

In the beginning, more than three prize winners could share a Nobel Prize, although this was never practiced. Paragraph four of the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation was amended in 1968, restricting the number of prizewinners to only three.

Previously, a person could be awarded a prize posthumously if the nomination was made before February 1 of the same year. Since 1974, the Prize may only go to a deceased person who has been named as prize winner for the year (usually in October) but who dies before the Prize Award Ceremony on December 10.

 

LAUREATES of NOBEL PRIZE in YEARS 1901-2002
Physics Medicine Chemistry
2002 Raymond Davis Jr., Masatoshi Koshiba, Riccardo Giacconi

2001 Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, Carl E. Wieman

2000 Zhores I. Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, Jack S. Kilby

1999 Gerardus 't Hooft, Martinus J.G. Veltman

1998 Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer, Daniel C. Tsui

1997 Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, William D. Phillips

1996 David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

1995 Martin L. Perl, Frederick Reines

1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse, Clifford G. Shull

1993 Russell A. Hulse, Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

1992 Georges Charpak

1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

1990 Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall, Richard E. Taylor

1989 Norman F. Ramsey, Hans G. Dehmelt, Wolfgang Paul

1988 Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, Jack Steinberger

1987 J. Georg Bednorz, K. Alex Müller

1986 Ernst Ruska, Gerd Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer

1985 Klaus von Klitzing

1984 Carlo Rubbia, Simon van der Meer

1983 Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, William A. Fowler

1982 Kenneth G. Wilson

1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen, Arthur L. Schawlow, Kai M. Siegbahn

1980 James Cronin, Val Fitch

1979 Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinberg

1978 Pyotr Kapitsa, Arno Penzias, Robert Woodrow Wilson

1977 Philip W. Anderson, Sir Nevill F. Mott, John H. van Vleck

1976 Burton Richter, Samuel C. C. Ting

1975 Aage N. Bohr, Ben R. Mottelson, James Rainwater

1974 Martin Ryle, Antony Hewish

1973 Leo Esaki, Ivar Giaever, Brian D. Josephson

1972 John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, Robert Schrieffer

1971 Dennis Gabor

1970 Hannes Alfvén, Louis Néel

1969 Murray Gell-Mann

1968 Luis Alvarez

1967 Hans Bethe

1966 Alfred Kastler

1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, Richard P. Feynman

1964 Charles H. Townes, Nicolay G. Basov, Aleksandr M. Prokhorov

1963 Eugene Wigner, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, J. Hans D. Jensen

1962 Lev Landau

1961 Robert Hofstadter, Rudolf Mössbauer

1960 Donald A. Glaser

1959 Emilio Segrè, Owen Chamberlain

1958 Pavel A. Cherenkov, Il´ja M. Frank, Igor Y. Tamm

1957 Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee

1956 William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain

1955 Willis E. Lamb, Polykarp Kusch

1954 Max Born, Walther Bothe

1953 Frits Zernike

1952 Felix Bloch, E. M. Purcell

1951 John Cockcroft, Ernest T. S. Walton

1950 Cecil Powell

1949 Hideki Yukawa

1948 Patrick M. S. Blackett

1947 Edward V. Appleton

1946 Percy W. Bridgman

1945 Wolfgang Pauli

1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi

1943 Otto Stern

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 Ernest Lawrence

1938 Enrico Fermi

1937 Clinton Davisson, George Paget Thomson

1936 Victor F. Hess, Carl D. Anderson

1935 James Chadwick

1934 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1933 Erwin Schrödinger, Paul A. M. Dirac

1932 Werner Heisenberg

1931 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1930 Venkata Raman

1929 Louis de Broglie

1928 Owen Willans Richardson

1927 Arthur H. Compton, C. T. R. Wilson

1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin

1925 James Franck, Gustav Hertz

1924 Manne Siegbahn

1923 Robert A. Millikan

1922 Niels Bohr

1921 Albert Einstein

1920 Charles Edouard Guillaume

1919 Johannes Stark

1918 Max Planck

1917 Charles Glover Barkla

1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1915 William Bragg, Lawrence Bragg

1914 Max von Laue

1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

1912 Gustaf Dalén

1911 Wilhelm Wien

1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals

1909 Guglielmo Marconi, Ferdinand Braun

1908 Gabriel Lippmann

1907 Albert A. Michelson

1906 J. J. Thomson

1905 Philipp Lenard

1904 Lord Rayleigh

1903 Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie

1902 Hendrik A. Lorentz, Pieter Zeeman

1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston

2001 Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse

2000 Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel

1999 Günter Blobel

1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad

1997 Stanley B. Prusiner

1996 Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus

1994 Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell

1993 Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp

1992 Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs

1991 Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann

1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas

1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus

1988 Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings

1987 Susumu Tonegawa

1986 Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini

1985 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein

1984 Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein

1983 Barbara McClintock

1982 Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane

1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel

1980 Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell

1979 Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield

1978 Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith

1977 Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow

1976 Baruch S. Blumberg, D. Carleton Gajdusek

1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard M. Temin

1974 Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade

1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen

1972 Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter

1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod

1969 Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador E. Luria

1968 Robert W. Holley, H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg

1967 Ragnar Granit, Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald

1966 Peyton Rous, Charles B. Huggins

1965 François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod

1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen

1963 Sir John Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew F. Huxley

1962 Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins

1961 Georg von Békésy

1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Medawar

1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg

1958 George Beadle, Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg

1957 Daniel Bovet

1956 André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards

1955 Hugo Theorell

1954 John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins

1953 Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann

1952 Selman A. Waksman

1951 Max Theiler

1950 Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip S. Hench

1949 Walter Hess, Egas Moniz

1948 Paul Müller

1947 Carl Cori, Gerty Cori, Bernardo Houssay

1946 Hermann J. Muller

1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey

1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S. Gasser

1943 Henrik Dam, Edward A. Doisy

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 Gerhard Domagk

1938 Corneille Heymans

1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi

1936 Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi

1935 Hans Spemann

1934 George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, William P. Murphy

1933 Thomas H. Morgan

1932 Sir Charles Sherrington, Edgar Adrian

1931 Otto Warburg

1930 Karl Landsteiner

1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Hopkins

1928 Charles Nicolle

1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg

1926 Johannes Fibiger

1925 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1924 Willem Einthoven

1923 Frederick G. Banting, John Macleod

1922 Archibald V. Hill, Otto Meyerhof

1921 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1920 August Krogh

1919 Jules Bordet

1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1915 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1914 Robert Bárány

1913 Charles Richet

1912 Alexis Carrel

1911 Allvar Gullstrand

1910 Albrecht Kossel

1909 Theodor Kocher

1908 Ilya Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich

1907 Alphonse Laveran

1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal

1905 Robert Koch

1904 Ivan Pavlov

1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen

1902 Ronald Ross

1901 Emil von Behring
2002 John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka, Kurt Wüthrich

2001 William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless

2000 Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa

1999 Ahmed Zewail

1998 Walter Kohn, John Pople

1997 Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou

1996 Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold Kroto, Richard E. Smalley

1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland

1994 George A. Olah

1993 Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith

1992 Rudolph A. Marcus

1991 Richard R. Ernst

1990 Elias James Corey

1989 Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech

1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel

1987 Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen

1986 Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John C. Polanyi

1985 Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle

1984 Bruce Merrifield

1983 Henry Taube

1982 Aaron Klug

1981 Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann

1980 Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger

1979 Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig

1978 Peter Mitchell

1977 Ilya Prigogine

1976 William Lipscomb

1975 John Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog

1974 Paul J. Flory

1973 Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson

1972 Christian Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William H. Stein

1971 Gerhard Herzberg

1970 Luis Leloir

1969 Derek Barton, Odd Hassel

1968 Lars Onsager

1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald G. W. Norrish, George Porter

1966 Robert S. Mulliken

1965 Robert B. Woodward

1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

1963 Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta

1962 Max F. Perutz, John C. Kendrew

1961 Melvin Calvin

1960 Willard F. Libby

1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky

1958 Frederick Sanger

1957 Lord Todd

1956 Sir Cyril Hinshelwood, Nikolay Semenov

1955 Vincent du Vigneaud

1954 Linus Pauling

1953 Hermann Staudinger

1952 Archer J. P. Martin, Richard L. M. Synge

1951 Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg

1950 Otto Diels, Kurt Alder

1949 William F. Giauque

1948 Arne Tiselius

1947 Sir Robert Robinson

1946 James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop, Wendell M. Stanley

1945 Artturi Virtanen

1944 Otto Hahn

1943 George de Hevesy

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 Adolf Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka

1938 Richard Kuhn

1937 Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer

1936 Peter Debye

1935 Frédéric Joliot, Irène Joliot-Curie

1934 Harold C. Urey

1933 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1932 Irving Langmuir

1931 Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius

1930 Hans Fischer

1929 Arthur Harden, Hans von Euler-Chelpin

1928 Adolf Windaus

1927 Heinrich Wieland

1926 The Svedberg

1925 Richard Zsigmondy

1924 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1923 Fritz Pregl

1922 Francis W. Aston

1921 Frederick Soddy

1920 Walther Nernst

1919 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1918 Fritz Haber

1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1915 Richard Willstätter

1914 Theodore W. Richards

1913 Alfred Werner

1912 Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier

1911 Marie Curie

1910 Otto Wallach

1909 Wilhelm Ostwald

1908 Ernest Rutherford

1907 Eduard Buchner

1906 Henri Moissan

1905 Adolf von Baeyer

1904 Sir William Ramsay

1903 Svante Arrhenius

1902 Emil Fischer

1901 Jacobus H. van 't Hoff
Peace Literature Economics
2002 Jimmy Carter

2001 United Nations, Kofi Annan

2000 Kim Dae-jung

1999 Médecins Sans Frontières

1998 John Hume, David Trimble

1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Jody Williams

1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, José Ramos-Horta

1995 Joseph Rotblat, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

1994 Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin

1993 Nelson Mandela, F. W. de Klerk

1992 Rigoberta Menchú Tum

1991 Aung San Suu Kyi

1990 Mikhail Gorbachev

1989 The 14th Dalai Lama

1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

1987 Oscar Arias Sánchez

1986 Elie Wiesel

1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

1984 Desmond Tutu

1983 Lech Walesa

1982 Alva Myrdal, Alfonso García Robles

1981 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

1979 Mother Teresa

1978 Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin

1977 Amnesty International

1976 Betty Williams, Mairead Corrigan

1975 Andrei Sakharov

1974 Seán MacBride, Eisaku Sato

1973 Henry Kissinger, Le Duc Tho

1972 The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund

1971 Willy Brandt

1970 Norman Borlaug

1969 International Labour Organization

1968 René Cassin

1967 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1966 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1965 United Nations Children's Fund

1964 Martin Luther King

1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies

1962 Linus Pauling

1961 Dag Hammarskjöld

1960 Albert Lutuli

1959 Philip Noel-Baker

1958 Georges Pire

1957 Lester Bowles Pearson

1956 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1955 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1953 George C. Marshall

1952 Albert Schweitzer

1951 Léon Jouhaux

1950 Ralph Bunche

1949 Lord Boyd Orr

1948 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1947 Friends Service Council, American Friends Service Committee

1946 Emily Greene Balch, John R. Mott

1945 Cordell Hull

1944 International Committee of the Red Cross

1943 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees

1937 Robert Cecil

1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas

1935 Carl von Ossietzky

1934 Arthur Henderson

1933 Sir Norman Angell

1932 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1931 Jane Addams, Nicholas Murray Butler

1930 Nathan Söderblom

1929 Frank B. Kellogg

1928 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1927 Ferdinand Buisson, Ludwig Quidde

1926 Aristide Briand, Gustav Stresemann

1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes

1924 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1923 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1922 Fridtjof Nansen

1921 Hjalmar Branting, Christian Lange

1920 Léon Bourgeois

1919 Woodrow Wilson

1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1917 International Committee of the Red Cross

1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1915 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1914 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1913 Henri La Fontaine

1912 Elihu Root

1911 Tobias Asser, Alfred Fried

1910 Permanent International Peace Bureau

1909 Auguste Beernaert, Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant

1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Fredrik Bajer

1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Louis Renault

1906 Theodore Roosevelt

1905 Bertha von Suttner

1904 Institute of International Law

1903 Randal Cremer

1902 Élie Ducommun, Albert Gobat

1901 Henri Dunant, Frédéric Passy
2002 Imre Kertész

2001 V.S. Naipaul

2000 Gao Xingjian

1999 Günter Grass

1998 José Saramago

1997 Dario Fo

1996 Wislawa Szymborska

1995 Seamus Heaney

1994 Kenzaburo Oe

1993 Toni Morrison

1992 Derek Walcott

1991 Nadine Gordimer

1990 Octavio Paz

1989 Camilo José Cela

1988 Naguib Mahfouz

1987 Joseph Brodsky

1986 Wole Soyinka

1985 Claude Simon

1984 Jaroslav Seifert

1983 William Golding

1982 Gabriel García Márquez

1981 Elias Canetti

1980 Czeslaw Milosz

1979 Odysseus Elytis

1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer

1977 Vicente Aleixandre

1976 Saul Bellow

1975 Eugenio Montale

1974 Eyvind Johnson, Harry Martinson

1973 Patrick White

1972 Heinrich Böll

1971 Pablo Neruda

1970 Alexander Solzhenitsyn

1969 Samuel Beckett

1968 Yasunari Kawabata

1967 Miguel Angel Asturias

1966 Samuel Agnon, Nelly Sachs

1965 Michail Sholokhov

1964 Jean-Paul Sartre

1963 Giorgos Seferis

1962 John Steinbeck

1961 Ivo Andric

1960 Saint-John Perse

1959 Salvatore Quasimodo

1958 Boris Pasternak

1957 Albert Camus

1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez

1955 Halldór Kiljan Laxness

1954 Ernest Hemingway

1953 Winston Churchill

1952 François Mauriac

1951 Pär Lagerkvist

1950 Bertrand Russell

1949 William Faulkner

1948 Thomas Stearns Eliot

1947 André Gide

1946 Hermann Hesse

1945 Gabriela Mistral

1944 Johannes V. Jensen

1943 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää

1938 Pearl Buck

1937 Roger Martin du Gard

1936 Eugene O'Neill

1935 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1934 Luigi Pirandello

1933 Ivan Bunin

1932 John Galsworthy

1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt

1930 Sinclair Lewis

1929 Thomas Mann

1928 Sigrid Undset

1927 Henri Bergson

1926 Grazia Deledda

1925 George Bernard Shaw

1924 Wladyslaw Reymont

1923 William Butler Yeats

1922 Jacinto Benavente

1921 Anatole France

1920 Knut Hamsun

1919 Carl Spitteler

1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1917 Karl Gjellerup, Henrik Pontoppidan

1916 Verner von Heidenstam

1915 Romain Rolland

1914 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1913 Rabindranath Tagore

1912 Gerhart Hauptmann

1911 Maurice Maeterlinck

1910 Paul Heyse

1909 Selma Lagerlöf

1908 Rudolf Eucken

1907 Rudyard Kipling

1906 Giosuè Carducci

1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz

1904 Frédéric Mistral, José Echegaray

1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson

1902 Theodor Mommsen

1901 Sully Prudhomme
2002 Daniel Kahneman, Vernon L. Smith

2001 George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, Joseph E. Stiglitz

2000 James J. Heckman, Daniel L. McFadden

1999 Robert A. Mundell

1998 Amartya Sen

1997 Robert C. Merton, Myron S. Scholes

1996 James A. Mirrlees, William Vickrey

1995 Robert E. Lucas Jr.

1994 John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr., Reinhard Selten

1993 Robert W. Fogel, Douglass C. North

1992 Gary S. Becker

1991 Ronald H. Coase

1990 Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller, William F. Sharpe

1989 Trygve Haavelmo

1988 Maurice Allais

1987 Robert M. Solow

1986 James M. Buchanan Jr.

1985 Franco Modigliani

1984 Richard Stone

1983 Gerard Debreu

1982 George J. Stigler

1981 James Tobin

1980 Lawrence R. Klein

1979 Theodore W. Schultz, Sir Arthur Lewis

1978 Herbert A. Simon

1977 Bertil Ohlin, James E. Meade

1976 Milton Friedman

1975 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich, Tjalling C. Koopmans

1974 Gunnar Myrdal, Friedrich August von Hayek

1973 Wassily Leontief

1972 John R. Hicks, Kenneth J. Arrow

1971 Simon Kuznets

1970 Paul A. Samuelson

1969 Ragnar Frisch, Jan Tinbergen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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